I have been in a very similar situation, and the problem was in the order of the JVM parameters.
You could try with leaving the parameter "-jar db-agent.jar" at the very end of the java command line?
java -Dappdynamics.https.proxyPort=3128 -Dappdynamics.https.proxyHost=proxy.acme.com -Ddbagent.name="acmeDB " -jar db-agent.jar
At least it worked for me.
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